Monday, November 30, 2009
Sunday, November 29, 2009
Saturday, November 28, 2009
Friday, November 27, 2009
Citation: The Ways of the World by Robert W. Strayer
Citation: The Ways of the World by Robert W. Strayer
Thursday, November 26, 2009
Tuesday, November 24, 2009
Monday, November 23, 2009
In the reading that I did last night,(604-605), Women were treated differently in certain time periods, and in certain regions of the world. For example before colonization, women had few work hours, because the families only did enough work to provide for their own families, but after, it all changed. As colonization took place, men started to plant a bunch of the cash crops such as cotton so they could trade, and market them, so the women were left with a huge plantation to work on. Hours for women changed from being forty six hours per week to being more than seventy. Men then started to move to different cities that were sometimes extremely far away just to seek money, so women then had full responsibility of the households. Of course women didn't want this and so they just stopped seeking husbands, and just turned to their families of birth. Women didn't always have it too bad. An example of this was that women in northern Nigeria started to get involved in small-scale trade and marketing, and they gained enough wealth to support even their husbands. Instead of the women asking the men for money, the men were now asking the women. Ultimately, in most parts of Africa women were treated unfairly.
According to the nineteenth-century chart, found in page 564 of Ways of the World, which depicts the “Progressive Development of Man”, identity is based on race. This chart shows nothing concerning women, so I don't think that western ideas played a huge role in the way women were treated in Africa. I believe that the own people of Africa created the situation they were in themselves because of the urge to get wealthy.
Ways of the world by Robert W. Strayer (pg 604-609)
Sunday, November 22, 2009
This section in the book titled, “Cooperation and Rebellion,” has two main focuses, and those two are exactly as the title says, cooperation and rebellion. In these two focuses the two regions/countries that are involved are Europe, and India.
Even though the Colonial Rulers were thought as being above all other races, because they happened to be European, they were not able to do everything themselves. They needed the help of the locals, and the locals willingly helped them out. Locals had no other choice, because being allied to the Europeans was the only way out of their miserable lives. It provided them with the protection that they needed, and it gave them great wealth. As this started to increase, many Europeans saw the importance of education so private organizations, missionaries, ect., started to educate the people of their colonies. As a result, emerged a Western-educated class. People received better jobs, such as teachers, and clerks, and some even went on to being huge roles in society, such as lawyers, doctors and engineers.
While there was cooperation between people, there was also an opposition. The biggest opposition was the Indian Rebellion, which lasted for one year, 1857-1858. This rebellion started, because the military introduced a new type of cartridge that was smeared in cow, and pig fat. These two animals happened to be in some way religiously sacred to all of the people of India, so the Indians saw it as a way of the conquerors trying to make them Christian. Indian troops triggered this rebellion, and it quickly spread to much of India. This rebellion caused the Europeans to look down at the people with even more hate, and it completely ended the alliance that India had with Britan.
Colonial Empires with a difference
The people in this section which are the people of Africa, were colonized because of the race differences between them and the Europeans. There was now a “High tide of scientific racism,” as it is said in the book. And the ruled were the Africans, and the rulers were the Europeans. Even the own people of Africa referred to the whites as “Bwana”(Swahili for master), while the Europeans referred to the Africans as “boy”, obviously establishing themselves as the higher class. If you were a colonial subject your education was also limited, and there was no way that you would obtain any kind of high rank. Africans were even starting to get everything separated from them in their own country, something known as apartheid. The Europeans made an industrial society based on the labor of only Africans, while limiting the social, and political integration of them. This broke the European policies of a democratic nation, because only a few people were allowed to be part of the government actions. This mad the colonies a sort of dictatorship that went unnoticed for a really long time. Unlike the people of India that had huge rebellions, the Africans didn't really have any sort of retaliation.
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Tuesday, November 17, 2009
Interaction with European Forces:
The European powers all raced to rule or conquer parts of Africa. In about 25 years, they conquered most if not all of Africa and the European colonies all came out with large portions of Africa and they were surprised with how fast that process went. They divided the country among themselves. Afterwards, they fought to decide who got what. And problems arrived when there were parts of Africa that were separate from the big cities or states. The societies that were fairly unorganized in "formal state structure" were the ones that the European powers argued about because it was unclear about where they "officially" belonged to.
Missionaries were coming to Africa to go and help them because they thought that the Africans were not as "well off" as they were. So, missionaries went to Africa to save the "people in poor countries." They also thought that they could explore the new area and so that they could discover new things and possibly retrieve some new raw materials and resources to be able to make more products to sell. They also wanted to be the "cool" country and have pride in the country by having the best one possible. They wanted to have strong nationalism to make them seem like "the best."
Obviously the people that were previously living in Africa were not very happy with the fact that people were invading where they were living and those people were dividing up their "habitat" for them to keep and to control. But the natives did not have much of a chance to fight back with much impact because they did not have the latest and greatest technology and weapons like the Europeans did and so they ended up falling to the Europeans' control, sadly.
Below shows a map that illustrates who was controlling certain parts of Africa and it is very similar to the graph we saw in class in Ms. Xia's powerpoint but it is just focusing on Africa.
Lain. "The Samurai Class of the Tokugawa Period". Associated Content News. November 17,2009.
Sunday, November 15, 2009
I feel as though the Industrial Revolution had its pros and cons. I will create a list here and by the end will see if one side outweighs the other.
1) The inventions that came out of the Industrial Revolution, such as steam and fuel run engines, the spinning jenny, the power loom, the cotton gin, and many more benefitted the people of that time era immensely.
2) The inventions benefitted multiple aspects of society. The engines provided a quicker and more efficient way of transportation and communication. All of the machinery that was invented allowed the amount of human labor to decrease and in turn led to a more efficient output of goods.
3) Due to the fact that the list of successful goods and services was ever growing, a “culture of innovation” (page 528 Ways of the World) was created. More was created, more was accepted, and ultimately more was improved.
4) The industrialization spread globally, changing and improving all areas, allowing trading opportunities as well as advancement in global relationships.
5) New forms of energy were discovered, such as oil, natural gas, and nuclear reactions, which led to the introduction of automobiles, airplanes, computers, and extreme advancement in electronics as a whole.
1) Due to the fact that factories and machinery required very little human labor, there was a huge increase in the loss of jobs of many.
2) The importance of agriculture, once the most dominant economic aspect in every civilization, shrank tremendously. Agriculture was once the greatest generator of national income and employed a large amount globally. With the importance of agriculture lost, what came with that was jobs lost as well.
3) New classes were established within the Industrial Revolution. There were the aristocrats, such as large landowners, who once ranked as top of the social pyramid. However as urban wealth became of more importance, the aristocrats were replaced by businessmen, manufacturers, and bankers. These new jobs were now of more importance than that of an aristocrat.
4) The new class system was not one built upon relationships. The aristocrats, middle classes, and laboring classes were completely separate. In Benjamin Disraeli’s novel Sybil, he describes the different classes as “two nations between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are ignorant of each other’s habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones or inhabitants of different planets.” (Page 538 Ways of the World)
5) What comes with factories is pollution, and what comes with pollution brings are problems. The quality of the factories in which laborers were working in were not of very good quality and led to both health and safety issues.
6) Although factories were created in order to lessen the amount of work both men and women had to do, it was still necessary for someone to be tending to the machines. This was a job that not many wanted for the work hours were demanding, the quality of the working quarters were unsatisfactory, and the pay was scarce. This led to unsatisfied workers, poverty, and rebellion.
As one can see, the list of ‘cons’ is a bit longer than the list of ‘pros.’ However, I feel as though the list of beneficial things that the Industrial Revolution brought is more significant than that of the cons. Yes, what came with the Industrial Revolution were some minor flaws, however in the long run, nothing but beneficial things have come from it. I feel as though as over all, the Industrial Revolution affected society positively and was extremely beneficial in forming what today’s world looks like.
Monday, November 9, 2009
Sunday, November 8, 2009
Today’s game that we played gave me a much better understanding of what life would be like in Europe in the 1800s. Luckily I was a single woman going into the Industrial Revolution because providing for just one person is hard enough. In order to eat decent food, have suitable clothing and a roof over one’s head, one must work all day ever day. In order for all of these things to be made possible for more than one person, then it is necessary for everyone in the family to work as well, including the children. I saw some families where children died due to the horrific working conditions, which as tragic as it was, in some ways benefitted the families due to now there was one less mouth to feed. I felt that the factory managers should have been a bit more lenient and conscientious of the wages they were paying their workers. Yes, I realize that they had to make livings for themselves and their families at home as well, however when it is at the point where families are going hungry or living on the streets then I feel as though something must be changed.
When it came time for the second round to commence, I felt as though I had a better idea of how to be successful. Although eating less may be harmful to my body, eating only potatoes saved me an amble amount of money. Also, as awful as it may sound, it was quite beneficial to me that Layla passed away early on for I would not be able to provide for the two of us. She would have been too little to work in a factory and I would have been unable to bring her with me to work. All in all, I feel as though it would have been extremely difficult living in the times that we are studying, and it is highly doubtful that I would be capable of living a successful life back then. Playing this game allowed me to grasp a deeper understanding of what life for people of that era was like, allowing me to gain more interest in the topic as we continue to study it.
Hello, my name is Lola Johanson and I have just moved to Manchester. I am 20 years old and I have left my extremely wealthy family in France to come here and start a new life. I had one child, a baby girl, who sadly did not make it here alive. My husband disappeared immediately after Layla was born. I am here on my own, ready to make a living for myself. Word in France was that Britain is home of all of the latest and greatest inventions, and they have a textile industry with 52 million pounds of cotton. With railroads criss-crossing and factories steaming, Manchester is just the place I have been looking for.
Living in the countryside of France was dreadful. The estate where I usually stayed in was big enough to house the French army and a few more, and everywhere I looked there was some maid just waiting for me to ask them for something. I never saw any of my multiple mothers and my father was always off taking care of some business related need. My 16 siblings were always at parties or gambling or out spending our father’s money in the most absurd ways imaginable. I needed to get out of there before I turned into one of them, which I promised myself I would not let happen.
Richard, my first love and once husband, was always in full support of my plans I had for the future. We were going to have a family, get married, and start a school system in the local town near my estate. However, once I got pregnant with Layla, everything seemed to go downhill. Arguments were the only conversations we had, and I began seeing less and less of him. Then Layla was born, on October 7th, and Richard was gone. No one ever saw him again. After that tragedy I knew I had to get out of that town, away from everything that reminded me of him and our future plans we had together. I took what I could fit into a knapsack and headed south with Layla. However due to the fact that she was was born premature, she did not make it even a week. Having lost both my husband and a child, I continued on my voyage to Manchester. Upon my arrival, I can only hope to turn my life around.
However, the positive aspects of the Industrial Revolution were all that were stated in this section. It got me thinking if along with all of the beneficial effects this time had on society in the late 1700’s, if there was a downside as well. After some further research, I found that there were some negatives as well. According to Wikipedia along with various other websites such as Yahoo Answers, the main downsides of the Industrial Revolution were enclosure, pollution, child labor, and insanitary working quarters.
Enclosure took place where those of the wealthier class took money/land from those of a lower class, forming one larger and better lot, leaving the farmers jobless. The machines and factories caused pollution, which dirtied the once clean air. The factories needed more workers than just adults, and in turn hired children to work their machines. Due to the fact that they were hiring children, they were able to get away with paying them below minimum wage as well as having them work in extremely close and unsuitable environments.
As one can see, the Industrial Revolution brought both positives and negatives to society in the 1750s-1800s. The positives, however, strongly outweigh the negatives. All of the beneficial things the new inventions brought truly improved the way Europe matured as a whole, opening up countless doors to even more future opportunities. The negatives were in fact harmful in some ways, and it is understandable as to why some saw the Industrial Revolution as damaging to those who lived through it. Yet as a whole, I feel as though for the most part all that came with the Industrial Revolution was beneficial and “this continuous emergence of new techniques of production and the economic growth that they made possible mark the past 250 years as a distinct phase of human history.” (Page 528 Ways of the World)
However, over time, inventions and other luxuries began to decrease in price. Workers gained more rights, as they formed unions and America moved towards social equality for all.
I agree with Marx that people were unequal during this era, however, I also agree with Smith that capitalism can be successful, as long as we keep those with capital in check.
The Industrial Revolution was a horrible part of America's history: it was full of oppression, discrimination, manipulation, and greed. However, it did give birth to economic success, revolutionary inventions, and global development in the long run.